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ROMAN PERIOD LEATHER AND SHOES

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Allason-Jones, L., Carol van Driel-Murray, E.M. Greene, 2020. "The Women of Lowland Scotland." In The Antonine Wall. Papers in Honour of Professor Lawrence Keppie, edited by D. Breeze and W. Hanson, 346-65. Archaeopress.

Arkesteijn, M., and Carol van Driel-Murray. 2015. “One Day on the Streets of Camelon: Discarded Shoes from a Roman Fort.” Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 45: 113–21.

Baratta, G. 2008. “Pelles scriptae: Inscriften auf Leder und Lederwaren.” In Instrumenta inscripta latina II: Akten des 2. internationalen Kolloquiums, Klagenfurt, 5.-8. Mai 2005, edited by Manfred Hainzmann and Reinhold Wedenig, 2:1–23. Verlag des Geschichtsverein für Kärnten.

Bishop, M. C., ed. 1985. The Production and Distribution of Roman Military Equipment: Proceedings of the Second Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar. Oxford, England: BAR Publishing.

 

Busch, Anna Lisa. 1965. “Die römerzeitlichen Schuh- und Lederfunde der Kastelle Saalburg, Zugmantel und Kleiner Feldberg.” Saalburg Jahrbuch 22: 158–210.

Charlesworth, Dorothy, and J. H. Thornton. 1973. “Leather Found in Mediobogdum, the Roman Fort of Hardknott.” Britannia 4: 141–52. 

Connolly, Peter. 1986. “A Reconstruction of a Roman Saddle.” Britannia 17: 353–55.

Connolly, Peter, and Carol van Driel-Murray. 1991. “The Roman Cavalry Saddle.” Britannia 22: 33– 50. 

Douglas, C.R. 2015. A Comparative Study of Roman-period Leather from Northern Britain. Unpublished MPhil, University of Glasgow.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1977a. “Leatherwork.” In Zwammerdam - Nigrum Pullum: Ein Auxiliarkastell Am Niedergermanischen Limes, edited by J. K. Haalebos, 249–81. Cingula 3. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1977b. “Stamped Leatherwork from Zwammerdam.” In Ex Horreo, edited by B.L van Beek, R.W. Brandt, and W. Groenman-van Waateringe, 151–64. Cingula 4. Amsterdam: Albert Egges van Giffen Instituut voor Prae-en Protohistorie.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1985. “The Production and Supply of Military Leatherwork in the First and Second Centuries AD.” In The Production and Distribution of Roman Military Equipment: Proceedings of the Second Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar, edited by M. C. Bishop, 43–75. BAR International Series 275. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1989. “The Vindolanda chamfrons and miscellaneous items of leather horse gear.” In Roman Military Equipment: the Sources of Evidence, edited by Carol van Driel-Murray, 281-318. BAR Int. Ser. 476.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1993. “The Leatherwork.” In Vindolanda Research Reports, New Series, Volume III: The early wooden forts. Preliminary reports on the leather, textiles, environmental evidence and dendrochronology, edited by Carol van Driel-Murray, J. P. Wild, M. Seaward and J. Hillam, 1-75. Bardon Mill: Roman Army Museum Publications.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1998. “A question of gender in a military context.” Helinium 34: 342–62.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1999a. “And Did Those Feet in Ancient Time… Feet and Shoes as a Material Projection of the Self.” In TRAC 98 Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Leicester 1998, edited by Patricia Baker, Colin Forcey, Sophia Jundi, and Robert Witcher, 131–40. TRAC Proceedings. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1999b. Das Ostkastell von Welzheim, Rems-Murr-Kreis : Die römischen Lederfunde. Die Terra Sigillata. Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Theiss.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 1999c. “Dead men’s shoes.” In Rom, Germanien und die Ausgrabungen von Kalkriese, edited by W. Schlüter and R. Wiegels, 169–89. Univ.-Verlag Rasch.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2001. “Vindolanda and the Dating of Roman Footwear.” Britannia 32: 185–97. 

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2002a. “Ancient Skin Processing and the Impact of Rome on Tanning Technology.”  In Le travail du cuir de la préhistoire à nos jours. Actes des rencontres, 18-20 octobre 2001, edited by F. Audoin-Rouzeau and S. Beyries, 251-265. Antibes : Éd. APDCA.

 

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2002b. “The leather trades in Roman Yorkshire and beyond.” In Aspects of Industry in Roman Yorkshire and the North, edited by P. Wilson and J. Price, 109–23. Oxford, Oxbow.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2007a. “Footwear in the North-Western Provinces of the Roman Empire.” In Stepping through Time: Archaeological Footwear from Prehistoric Times until 1800, by Olaf Goubitz, Carol van Driel-Murray, and W. Groenman-van Waateringe, 1: 336–76. Zwolle: Stichting Promotie Archeologie.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2007b. “Mode in de Nadagen van Het Keizerrijk: De Schoenen van Cuijk.”

Westerheem, 4th century footwear from the Roman fort at Cuijk on the Meuse, 56: 133–41.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2009a. “Roman Leather.” In Excavations at Bowes and Lease Rigg Roman Forts, edited by Sheppard Frere and R. L. Fitts, 163–64. Yorkshire Archaeological Society Reports 6. Leeds: Yorkshire Archaeological Society.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2009b. “Tanning and Leather.” In The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, edited by John Peter Oleson, 483–95. Oxford University Press. 

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2011a. “Are We Missing Something? The Elusive Tanneries of the Roman Period.” In Leather Tanneries: The Archaeological Evidence, edited by Roy Thomson and Quita Mould, 69– 83. London: Archetype.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2011b. “Leather from the Roman Wells in the Vicus of Rainau-Buch.” In Rainau-Buch II: Der römische Kastellvicus von Rainau-Buch (Ostalbkreis), edited by B. A. Greiner, 218–23. Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2012. “Schoen- En Ledervondsten.” In Scherven, Schepen En Schoeiingen: LR62 Archeologische Onderzoek in Een Fossiele Rivierbedding Bij Het Castellum van De Meern, edited by A. C. Aarts, 197–213. Utrecht: Gemeente Utrecht, Stadsontwikkeling, Stedenbouw en Monumenten.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2014. “Putting Some Flesh on The Bones: Leather Bikinis and Body Size.” In Life in the Limes: Studies of the People and Objects of the Roman Frontiers, edited by Rob Collins and Frances McIntosh, 206–16. Oxbow Books.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2016a. “Fashionable Footwear: Craftsmen and Consumers in the North-West Provinces of the Roman Empire.” In Urban Craftsmen and Traders in the Roman World, edited by Andrew Wilson and Miko Flohr, 132–52. Oxford University Press. 

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2016b. “The Leather Trades in Roman Yorkshire and Beyond.” In Aspects of Industry in Roman Yorkshire and the North, edited by Pete Wilson and Jennifer Price, 1st edition, 109– 23. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. 2019. “The rural reach of Roman footwear: observations from South-Holland.” In Ab harenis incvltis: artikelen voor Ab Waasdorp, edited by R. J. van Zoolingen, 167–74. Gemeente Den Haag, afdeling Archeologie.

Driel-Murray, Carol van. and J. van der Plicht. 2016. “Het gelijk van Boeles: schoenvondsten uit de Friese terpen.” In Van Wierhuizen tot Achlum. Honderd jaar archeologisch onderzoek in terpen en wierden, edited by A. Nieuwhof, 171-80. Groningen: Vereniging voor Terpenonderzoek.

Driel-Murray, Carol van, and M. Gechter. 1983. “Funde Aus Der Fabrica Der Legio I Minerva Am Bonner Berg." Rheinische Ausgrabungen 23, 1–83. Beiträge zur Archäologie des römischen Rheinlands IV.

Goldman, Norma. 2001. “Roman Footwear.” In The World of Roman Costume, edited by Larissa Bonfante and Judith Lynn Sebesta, 101–32. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Goubitz, Olaf, Carol van Driel-Murray, and W. Groenman-van Waateringe. 2007. Stepping through

Time : Archaeological Footwear from Prehistoric Times until 1800. Zwolle: Stichting Promotie Archeologie, Zwolle.

Greene, E.M. 2013. “Before Hadrian’s Wall: Early Military Communities on the Roman Frontier in Britain.” In Breaking Down Boundaries: Hadrian’s Wall in the 21st Century, edited by R. Collins and M.F.A. Symonds, 17-32. Portsmouth: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

Greene, E.M. 2014. “If the Shoe Fits: Style and Status in the Assemblage of Children’s Shoes from Vindolanda.” In Life in the Limes: Studies of the People and Objects of the Roman Frontiers, edited by Rob Collins and Frances McIntosh, 29–36. Oxbow Books.

Greene, E.M. 2018. “Footwear and Fashion on the Fringe: Stamps and Decoration on Leather and Shoes from Vindolanda (1993-2016).” In Embracing the Provinces: Society and Material Culture of the Roman Frontier Regions, edited by Tatiana Ivleva, Jasper De Bruin, and Mark Driessen, 143–52. Philadelphia, PA: Oxbow Books.

Greene, E.M. 2019. “Metal Fittings on the Vindolanda Shoes: Footwear and Evidence for Podiatric Knowledge in the Roman World.” In Shoes, Slippers and Sandals Feet and Footwear in Classical Antiquity, edited by Sadie Pickup and Sally Waite, 310–24. London: Routledge.

Greene, E.M. 2021. “The Shoes.” In Bridge over troubled water: The Roman finds from the River Tees at Piercebridge in context, edited by H. Eckardt and P. Walton, 70-72. Britannia Monograph Series no. 34.

Greene, E.M, and B Birley. 2020. “The Assemblage of Archaeological Footwear from the Roman Fort at Vindolanda.” In Ai piedi degli dei: le calzature antiche e la loro fortuna nella cultura del Novecento, Museo della Moda e del Costume delle Gallerie degli Uffizi, edited by Lorenza Camin, Caterina Chiarelli, and Fabrizio Paolucci, 82–89. Florence: Firenze Musei.

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1967. Romeins Lederwerk Uit Valkenburg Z.H. Nederlandse Oudheden 2. Groningen: Wolters.

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1975. “Römische Lederfunde Aus Vindonissa und Valkenburg ZH: Ein Vergleich.” Gesellschaft Pro Vindonissa, Jahresbericht 1974, 62– 84.

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1978. “Shoe sizes and palaeodemography.” Helinium 18: 184-9.

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1992. “Analyses of the Hides and Skins from the Hauslabjoch.” Jahrbuch Des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 39 (1): 114–28.

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1993. “Leather Artefacts.” In The Valkenburg Excavations 1985-1988: Introduction and Detail Studies, edited by R. M. van Dierendonck, Daan P. Hallewas, and Karen Waugh, 217–38. Amersfoort: ROB.

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 1999. “The Leather Finds.” In The excavations at Wijnaldum, reports on Frisia in Roman and Medieval times, edited by J.C. Besteman, J.M. Bos, D.A. Gerrets, H.A. Heidinga and J. de Koning, 299-303. Rotterdam.   

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. 2009. “The Source of Hides and Skins for Roman Army Equipment.” In The Army and Frontiers of Rome, edited by W.S. Hanson, 209–52. Portsmouth, R.I.: Journal of Roman Archaeology.

Groenman-van Waateringe, W. and H. Herschel. 1982. “How healthy were the feet of our predecessors?” Proceedings of the Paleopathology Association 4th European meeting, 335-340.

Grömer, Karina, Gabriela Ruß-Popa, and Konstantina Saliari. 2017. “Products of Animal Skin from

Antiquity to the Medieval Period.” Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Serie A für Mineralogie und Petrographie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Anthropologie und Prähistorie 119: 69–93.

Himmler, F. 2008. “Testing the ‘Ramshaw’ Boot – Experimental Calceology on the March.” Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies 16: 347-357.

Hoevenberg, J. 1993. “Leather Artefacts.” In The Valkenburg Excavations 1985-1988, edited by R.M. van Dierendonck, D.P. Hallewas and K.E. Waugh, 217-338. ROB: Amersfoort.

Kelly, Jackie, and Quita Mould. 2017. “Leatherworking in South-Eastern Britain in the Roman Period.” In Agriculture and Industry in South-Eastern Roman Britain, edited by David Bird, 236–54. Oxbow Books.

Köstner, Barbara. 2016. “Wearing Socks in Sandals: The Height of Roman Fashion?” In Small Finds and Ancient Social Practices in the Northwest Provinces of the Roman Empire, edited by Stefanie Hoss and Alissa Whitmore, 16–27. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Lentini, Alessandro, and Giuseppe Scala. 2002. “Identification and Technology of Textile Fibres and

Leather from the Roman Ships of Pisa San Rossore, Italy.” Revue d’Archéométrie 26 (1): 171– 76. 

McIntyre, J., and L.A. Richmond. 1934. “Tents of the Roman Army and Leather from Birdoswald.” Transactions of the Cumberland & Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, 34: 62–90. 

Metcalfe, A.C, and R.B. Longmore. 1973. “Leather Artefacts from Vindolanda 1972-1973.” Transactions of the Museum Assistants’ Group 12, edited by P.S. Doughty, 38–43.

Mills, J. M. 1993. “Hobnails.” In Excavations at Poundbury 1966-80, Vol. 2: The Cemeteries, edited by D. E. Farwell and T. I. Molleson, 11: 99. Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Monograph Series.

Mould, Quita. 1997. “The Leather.” In Birdoswald: Excavations of a Roman Fort on Hadrian’s Wall and Its Successor Settlements, 1987-92, edited by Tony Wilmott, 326–41. English Heritage Archaeological Report 14.

Mould, Quita. 2007. “The Leather.” In Excavations at Abingdon West Central Redevelopment: Iron Age, Roman, Medieval, and Post-medieval Activity in Abingdon, by Kate Brady, Alex Smith, and Granville Laws, Oxoniensia 72, 107-202.

Mould, Quita. 2009. “The Roman Shoes.” In The Carlisle Millenium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998-2001. Vol 2: The Finds, edited by C. Howard-Davis, 2: 831–41. Lancaster Imprints 14.

Mould, Quita, and G. Edwards. 1995.  Guidelines for the Care of Waterlogged Archaeological Leather. English Heritage Scientific and Technical Publications Guideline 4.

Padley, Timothy Giles, and Susan Winterbottom. 1991. “The Wooden, Leather and Bone Objects from Castle Street, Carlisle: Excavations 1981-2.” In The Roman Waterlogged Remains And Later Features at Castle Street, Carlisle: Excavations 1981-2, by Michael Robin McCarthy, fasicule 3: 228–43. Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Research Series 5.

Reed, R. 1972. Ancient Skins, Parchments and Leathers. Seminar Press.

Rhodes, M. 1980. “Leather Footwear.” In Excavations at Billingsgate Buildings ‘Triangle’, Lower Thames Street, 1974, edited by D.M. Jones, 99-128. London: London and Middlesex Archaeological Society.

Rhodes, Michael. 1987. “Inscriptions on Leather Waste from Roman London.” Britannia 18: 173–81.

Schleiermacher, M. 1982. “Römische Leder- und Textilfunde aus Köln.” Archaologisches Korrespondezblatt 12: 205–16.

Shaw, E. 2017. “Shoes and Status in Roman Art and Archaeology.” Unpublished MA, Newcastle: Newcastle University.

Stirling, Lea. 2008. “One Foot in the Grave: Evidence for Footwear in the Graves of Roman North

Africa.” In L’Africa Romana, edited by Julián González, Paulo Ruggeri, Cinzia Vismara, and Raimondo Zucca, 4: 2265–74. Atti Del XVII Convegno Di Studio Sevilla, 14-17 Dicembre 2006. Rome: Cariccu editore. 

Veldmeijer, A. J. 2011. Sandals, Shoes and Other Leatherwork from the Coptic Monastery Deir El Bachit: Analysis and Catalogue. Sidestone Press.

Volken, M. 2008. “Making the Ramshaw Boot. An exercise in experimental archaeology.” Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies 16: 359-366.

Volken, Marquita. 2014. Archaeological Footwear: Development of Shoe Patterns and Styles from Prehistory Till the 1600’s. Spa Uitgevers.

Waterer, J.W. 1976. “Leatherwork.” In Roman Crafts, edited by D. Strong and D. Brown, 178-93. London.

Winterbottom, S. 1989. “Saddle covers, chamfrons and possible horse armour from Carlisle.” In Roman Military Equipment: the Sources of Evidence, edited by Carol van Driel-Murray, 319-336. BAR Int. Ser. 476.

ROMAN PERIOD LEATHER AND SHOES
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